Rice 大米

 

Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa or less commonly Oryza glaberrima. As a cereal grain, it is the most widely consumed staple food for a large part of the world’s human population, especially in Asia and Africa. It is the agricultural commodity with the third-highest worldwide production, after sugarcane and maize.

Rice, a monocot, is normally grown as an annual plant, although in tropical areas it can survive as a perennial and can produce a ratoon crop for up to 30 years. Rice cultivation is well-suited to countries and regions with low labor costs and high rainfall, as it is labor-intensive to cultivate and requires ample water. However, rice can be grown practically anywhere, even on a steep hill or mountain area with the use of water-controlling terrace systems. Although its parent species are native to Asia and certain parts of Africa, centuries of trade and exportation have made it commonplace in many cultures worldwide.

The traditional method for cultivating rice is flooding the fields while, or after, setting the young seedlings. This simple method requires sound irrigation planning but reduces the growth of less robust weed and pest plants that have no submerged growth state, and deters vermin. While flooding is not mandatory for the cultivation of rice, all other methods of irrigation require higher effort in weed and pest control during growth periods and a different approach for fertilizing the soil.

稻,又称稻谷、稻米,俗称大米,常简称为米,是人类重要的粮食作物之一。

耕种及食用的历史相当悠久,分为水稻和光稃稻。

稻的栽培起源于约西元前8200年南中国珠江中游的聚落地带, 另有考古发现在约西元前8200年前的中国湖南也有种早期稻米。

在1993年,考古队在道县玉蟾岩发现了世界最早的古栽培稻,距今约8200年。

水稻在中国与东南亚广为栽种后,逐渐向西传播到印度, 在亚洲季风气候区是自古以来的主食,中世纪时引入欧洲南部。

现时全世界有一半的人口食用稻,主要在亚洲、欧洲南部和热带美洲及非洲部分地区。

2013年稻的总产量占世界粮食作物产量第二位,仅低于玉米。

  • 籼稻(Oryza sativa indica):有20%左右为直链淀粉。属中黏性。籼稻起源于亚热带,种植于热带和亚热带地区,生长期短,在无霜期长的地方一年可多次成熟。去壳成为籼米后,外观细长、透明度低。有的品种表皮发红,如中国江西出产的红米,煮熟后米饭较干、松。通常用于萝卜糕、米粉、炒饭。广东人爱吃的丝苗米是籼稻的一种。为南亚、东南亚、中国南部地区主要食用米。
  • 粳稻(Oryza sativa japonica):粳稻的直链淀粉较少,低于15%。种植于温带和寒带地区,生长期长,一般一年只能成熟一次,台湾一般被认为是北半球粳稻生长最南区。去壳成为粳米后,外观圆短、透明(部分品种米粒有局部白粉质)。煮食特性介于糯米与籼米之间。为中国北部及台湾、日本、朝鲜半岛主要食用米。
  • 糯稻(Oryza sativa var glutinosa):支链淀粉含量接近100%,黏性最高。又分粳糯(圆糯)及籼糯(长糯),粳糯外观圆短,籼糯外观细长,颜色均为白色不透明。煮熟后米饭较软、黏。粳糯常见用途为用于酿酒、米糕、红龟粿、甜粿、汤圆等。籼糯则作为八宝粥、粽子、油饭等原料。