Civil aviation is one of two major categories of flying, representing all non-military and non-state aviation, both private and commercial. Most of the countries in the world are members of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and work together to establish common standards and recommended practices for civil aviation through that agency.
Civil aviation includes three major categories:
- Commercial air transport, including scheduled and non-scheduled passenger and cargo flights
- Aerial work, in which an aircraft is used for specialized services such as agriculture, photography, surveying, search and rescue, etc.
- General aviation (GA), including all other civil flights, private or commercial.
Commercial aviation is the part of civil aviation that involves operating aircraft for remuneration or hire, as opposed to private aviation.
Flight or Airline is a scheduled trip by plane between designated airports.
Civil aviation authorities
The Convention on International Civil Aviation (the “Chicago Convention”) was originally established in 1944; it states that signatories should collectively work to harmonize and standardize the use of airspace for safety, efficiency and regularity of air transport. Each signatory country, of which there are at least 193, has a civil aviation authority (such as the FAA in the United States) to oversee the following areas of civil aviation:
- Personnel licensing — regulating the basic training and issuance of licenses and certificates.
- Flight operations — carrying out safety oversight of commercial operators.
- Airworthiness — issuing certificates of registration and certificates of airworthiness to civil aircraft, and overseeing the safety of aircraft maintenance organizations.
- Aerodromes — designing and constructing aerodrome facilities.
- Air traffic services — managing the traffic inside of a country’s airspace.
The longest non-stop flights in the world by flight duration
|Rank||Destination A||Destination B||Airline||Maximum Scheduled Duration|
|1||Newark||Singapore||Singapore Airlines||18h 45m|
|2||Auckland||Doha||Qatar Airways||18h 20m|
|3||Los Angeles||Singapore||Singapore Airlines||17h 50m|
|4||San Francisco||Singapore||Singapore Airlines||17h 35m|
|5||Houston||Sydney||United Airlines||17h 30m|
|6||New York–JFK||Manila||Philippine Airlines||17h 30m|
|9||San Francisco||Singapore||United Airlines||17h 20m|
民用航空（简称 民航 ）是指除军事、公务（例如警务、海关）用途以外的航空服务，包括私人或商业性质的飞行。世界上大多数国家都是国际民航组织（ICAO）成员，并透过该组织制定民用航空的共同标准。