In Texas hold ‘em, as in all variants of poker, individuals compete for an amount of money or chips contributed by the players themselves (called the pot). Because the cards are dealt randomly and outside the control of the players, each player attempts to control the amount of money in the pot based on the hand they are holding, and on their prediction as to what their opponents may be holding and how they might behave.
The game is divided into a series of hands (deals); at the conclusion of each hand, the pot is typically awarded to one player (an exception in which the pot is divided between two or more is discussed below). A hand may end at the showdown, in which case the remaining players compare their hands and the highest hand is awarded the pot; that highest hand is usually held by only one player, but can be held by more in the case of a tie. The other possibility for the conclusion of a hand occurs when all but one player have folded and have thereby abandoned any claim to the pot, in which case the pot is awarded to the player who has not folded.
The objective of winning players is not to win every individual hand, but rather to win over the longer term by making mathematically and psychologically better decisions regarding when and how much to bet, raise, call or fold. Winning poker players work to enhance their opponents’ betting and maximize their own expected gain on each round of betting, to thereby increase their long-term winnings.
|Highcard||Simple value of the card. Lowest: 2 – Highest: Ace (King in example)|
|Pair||Two cards with the same value|
|Two pairs||Two times two cards with the same value|
|Three of a kind||Three cards with the same value|
|Straight||Sequence of 5 cards in increasing value (Ace can precede 2 and follow up King)|
|Flush||5 cards of the same suit|
|Full house||Combination of three of a kind and a pair|
|Four of a kind||Four cards of the same value|
|Straight flush||Straight of the same suit|
One of the most important things in Texas hold’em is knowing how to evaluate a hand. The strategy of playing each hand can be very different according to the strength of the hand. For example, on a strong hand, a player might want to try to appear weak in order to not scare off other players with weaker hands, while on a weak hand, a player might try to bluff other players into folding.
There are several ways to evaluate hand strength; two of the most common are counting outs and using calculators.
- Counting outs – this method consists of counting the cards still in the deck, which in combination with the cards the player already has can give the player a potentially winning hand.
Such cards are called “outs”, and hand strength can be measured by how many outs are still in the deck (if there are many outs then the probability to get one of them is high and therefore the hand is strong). The following chart determines the probability of hitting outs (bettering the player’s hand) based on how many cards are left in the deck and the draw type.
|One Card %||Two Card %||One Card Odds||Two Card Odds||Draw Type|
|2%||4%||46||23||Inside Straight Flush|
|4%||8%||22||12||Pocket Pair to Set|
|9%||17%||10||5||Inside Straight / Two Pair to Full House|
|11%||20%||8||4||One Pair to Two Pair or Trips|
|13%||24%||6.7||3.2||No Pair to Pair / Two Overcards|
|15%||28%||5.6||2.6||Inside Straight & One Overcard|
|22%||38%||3.6||1.6||Inside Straight & Two Overcards|
|24%||42%||3.2||1.4||Open Straight & One Overcard|
|26%||45%||2.8||1.2||Flush & One Overcard|
|28%||48%||2.5||1.1||Flush & Inside Straight|
|30%||51%||2.3||0.95||Open Straight & Two Overcards|
|33%||54%||2.1||0.85||Flush & Two Overcards|
|34%||57%||1.9||0.75||Flush & Inside Straight & One Overcard|
|37%||60%||1.7||0.66||Flush & Open Ended Straight|
Two Times Rule and Four Times Rule: Multiplying the number of outs by two or four gives a reasonable approximation to the
One Card %or
Two Card %, respectively, in the above table. For example, an open straight draw on the flop has 8 outs so the odds to hit the straight on the turn is 16% (8 x 2) and the odds on the river is 32% (8 x 4).
Calculators: calculators are poker tools that calculate the odds of a hand (combined with the cards on the table if there are any) to win the game. Calculators provide precise odds but they cannot be used in live games and are therefore mostly used on Internet poker games. The first known commercial poker calculator was marketed by Mike Caro. Michael Shackleford, the Wizard of Odds, later made one available to the public free of charge on his website.
标准德州扑克游戏盲注的位置，小盲注与大盲注紧接于发牌者之后。德州扑克通常规定大小两个盲注（也可兼用底注（ante），特别在是扑克赛较后阶段）。坐在发牌人（dealer）位置的牌手，前面有按钮作标示。发牌人按钮每局以顺时针方向移动一个位置，发牌人和盲注位置随之变动。位于发牌人顺时针方向次一位置的牌手须下小盲注（small blind），金额等于大盲注（big blind）的一半。小盲注牌手的下一家的牌手须下大盲注，金额等于最低下注额。在扑克比赛中，盲注/底注的金额会随时间逐渐提高。有时大小盲注有不同比例，例如大小盲注分别为15元和10元也十分正常。“双盲注制”在1980年代后较为流行，1980年代以前则是以单盲注制较为普遍。如只剩两名牌手，“一对一”（heads-up）特别规则会生效，盲注的位置会有所不同。在这个情况下，发牌人下小盲注，而他的对手须下大盲注，只有第一轮由发牌者先叫注，翻牌后的各轮皆由大盲注先行叫注。德州扑克最常见的三个变种为限注（limit）、无限注（no-limit）和彩池限注（pot-limit）。美国赌场最流行的曾是限注德州扑克。